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Quadro Internazionale

The role of women in the decarbonization path

di Emanuele Cazzola, Università LUISS Guido Carli Roma

DOI 10.12910/EAI2018-46

Gender equality is a fundamental condition to achieve a just and efficient transition to a low-carbon economy. A successful inclusion of women in the sector means achieving greater diversity and complementarity as well as expanding the pool of talent to better address the demand for skills. In more advanced economies, actions addressing the existent gender gap in education are needed in order to exploit the employment potential of the clean energy sector. Although varying along with differences in socio-economic and cultural settings, there are specific opportunities for women in developing countries as well

La nuova politica spaziale europea: la missione operativa CO2

di Giulia Tresca e Andrea Taramelli, Scuola Universitaria Superiore Pavia; Riccardo De Lauretis e Roberta Vigni, Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale (ISPRA)

DOI 10.12910/EAI2018-045

La Commissione Europea, nell’ambito del Programma Copernicus per l’osservazione della Terra, sta progettando una missione satellitare per il monitoraggio della CO2 antropogenica, per valutare le grandi sorgenti di emissioni (complessi industriali, centrali elettriche, aree urbane). L’utilizzo delle osservazioni satellitari di gas serra intende verificare le quantità di emissioni a livello nazionale e globale, identificando i gap informativi presenti nei dati finora disponibili. La missione CO2 comporta un’enorme quantità di investimenti sia in risorse tecnologiche che umane, ma la creazione di una piattaforma integrata dei dati avrà ricadute positive sui servizi di pubblico interesse e come strumenti per valutazione delle politiche ambientali

Strategies for deep decarbonization of processing industries

by Stefan Lechtenböhmer, Wuppertal Institut für Klima Umwelt Energie

DOI 10.12910/EAI2018-44

Energy-intensive processing industries (EPI) provide basic materials like steel, aluminium, pulp, paper, cement, plastics, chemicals, etc. Processes in EPIs, however, are still highly carbon intensive and responsible for a large share of global GHG emissions. Currently the EU and its Member States are preparing important policies, such as a new industrial policy on the EU level (EC 2017) and the Mid-century low emissions strategy. Together these will describe the industrial as well as energy and climate policy of the years to come with a long term horizon towards a decarbonised European economy by 2050. This paper provides a brief overview of the respective technological, infrastructural as well as innovation and policy strategies for a comprehensive approach that is needed to deeply decarbonise processing industries

Tracking Clean Energy Progress – Informing the Energy Transitions

by Simone Landolina, International Energy Agency (IEA)

DOI 10.12910/EAI2018-43

Tracking Clean Energy Progress (TCEP), the International Energy Agency's (IEA) newly updated website (www.iea.org/tcep), assesses the latest progress made by key energy technologies, and how quickly each technology is moving towards the goals of the IEA’s Sustainable Development Scenario. The website provides easy navigation across technologies and sectors and draws links across the IEA’s resources. The report will be updated throughout the year as new data becomes available, and will be complemented by cutting-edge analysis and commentary on notable developments on the global clean energy transition

La decarbonizzazione dei Paesi in Via di Sviluppo: il trasferimento tecnologico

di Francesco La Camera, MATTM; Natale Massimo Caminiti, ENEA

DOI 10.12910/EAI2018-42

L’Accordo di Parigi per contrastare il cambiamento climatico prevede un impegno finanziario e di trasferimento tecnologico da parte dei Paesi Sviluppati a favore dei Paesi in Via di Sviluppo. Di seguito vengono riportate alcune riflessioni e un quadro del contributo generale dell’Italia, e in particolare di quello del Ministero dell’Ambiente e della Tutela del territorio e del Mare e dell’ENEA, verso i Paesi in Via di Sviluppo sulle attività di mitigazione e adattamento ai cambiamenti climatici

La transizione dell’Unione Europea verso un nuovo modello energetico eco-sostenibile tra scelte politiche, regolazione e dinamiche di mercato

di Laura Ammannati, Jean Monnet Chair in EU energy regulation and policy – Università di Milano; Associazione Italiana di Diritto dell’Energia (AIDEN)

DOI 10.12910/EAI2018-41

La politica di decarbonizzazione lanciata dalla Commissione Europea non sembra destinata ad un sicuro successo. La transizione verso la produzione di energia da fonti rinnovabili ha acuito un conflitto tra le politiche per la creazione di un efficiente mercato unico e quelle nazionali. L’approccio proposto dalla Commissione Europea alle politiche per efficienza energetica, fonti rinnovabili e riduzione delle emissioni di gas serra con il ‘Winter Package’ del novembre 2016 elimina molti vincoli per gli Stati membri ma deve indirizzarli verso gli obiettivi comuni dell’Unione. Tale fine è perseguito dal progetto di regolamento sulla governance che rimodella le relazioni tra Commissione e Stati membri. Tuttavia, gli strumenti nelle mani della Commissione non sembrano del tutto adeguati a una efficace convergenza tra scelte nazionali e obiettivi dell’Unione

Rural transformation, innovation and sustainable agro-food systems

by Andrea Sonnino and Milena Stefanova, ENEA

DOI 10.12910/EAI2018-023

The global challenge of feeding the growing population, while preserving the natural resource base in the context of climate change, implies the need for profound transformation of agro-food systems. This paper considers the changes in progress in rural areas, their multifaceted relationships with the cities, as well as their implications for system-level innovation in driving sustainable rural transformation

The Thermonuclear Fusion Lesson

by Gaetano Borrelli, ENEA

DOI 10.12910/EAI2017-069

The paper analyses some of the aspects developing during the period 1997-2008 in which the Author has been involved in SERF Programme (Socio Economic Impact of Fusion) as Italian responsible of Public acceptance and communication process of ITER at moment in construction in Cadarache France. In particular Public acceptance of technology and communication process shall be take into account

Fusion Power Plants

by David Maisonnier, European Commission

DOI 10.12910/EAI2017-068

Developing fusion energy as a new source of energy represents a considerable challenge. The European Union, together with all ITER Parties, is currently engaged in the construction of the ITER device, which represents a scientific and technical undertaking of unprecedented magnitude. Successful ITER operation will demonstrate the scientific feasibility of fusion energy, leading to the construction of one or more DEMOs to demonstrate the technological and economic viability of fusion power

The European In-Kind Contribution to ITER

by Federico R. Casci, Fusion for Energy, Spain

DOI 10.12910/EAI2017-067

ITER – “the way” in Latin – is a major step in the development of fusion energy. Its objective is to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion energy. The European Union (including Switzerland), Japan, China, Korea, the Russian Federation, India, and the USA are part of this international scientific project. The ITER machine is under construction at Cadarache in the south of France

Global environmental changes and the impact on ecosystems and human health

by Laura Mancini, Stefania Marcheggiani, Camilla Puccinelli, Ines Lacchetti and Mario Carere, Italian Institute of Health, Timothy Bouley, World Bank Group

DOI 10.12910/EAI2017-057

Global environmental changes caused by human activities can modify, sometimes permanently, the structure and the composition of ecosystems (aquatic, land, air). The socio-economic evolution of recent decades has caused the release and emissions into ecosystems of multiple contaminants (chemical and microbiological). Their diffusion, interaction and effects on human health can be sometimes ignored. These changes have caused the progressive loss of biodiversity, the accumulation of contaminants in biota and a deterioration of the chemical and microbiological quality status of environmental matrices. In order to prevent future damage to ecosystems it is urgent to apply innovative, rapid, sensitive monitoring tools that can allow to identify the hazards and prevent risks to human health via appropriate management measures. In this paper, we provide an overview of some European and international approaches to deal with the certain challenges raised by global environmental changes

Epigenetics and the environment

by Ettore Meccia and Eugenia Dogliotti, Istituto Superiore di Sanità; Zdenko Herceg, International Agency for Research on Cancer

DOI 10.12910/EAI2017-056

Recent studies revealed that epigenetic changes may be associated with aging and exposure to various environmental, dietary and lifestyle risk factors. Therefore, epigenetic changes that are risk factor-specific (“fingerprints”) may be instrumental in the discovery of new biomarkers for early diagnosis, prognosis and risk stratification, but also new targets for epigenetics-based therapies and prevention

OekoBusiness Vienna: environmental service package for local companies

by Thomas Hruschka, Director of Sustainable Development, Environmental Protection, City of Vienna

DOI 10.12910/EAI2017-020

OekoBusiness Vienna was launched in 1998 by the Municipal Department for Environmental Protection on behalf of the Vienna City Administration. To date, 1,185 companies have participated in OekoBusiness Vienna, implementing more than 15,000 environmental projects and actions. The success of OekoBusiness Vienna illustrates that the voluntary move to apply quality standards for sustainability that exceed legal requirements creates significant financial benefits

Pathways for Urban Development: the role of urban basic services in delivering on the New Urban Agenda

by Oliver Lah, Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy, Germany

DOI 10.12910/EAI2017-019

The United Nations Conference on Housing and Sustainable Urban Development (Habitat III) held from 17 to 20 October 2016 in Quito, Ecuador, concluded with the adoption of the New Urban Agenda: an action-oriented document which will set global standards of achievement in sustainable urban development. Urban basic services such as urban energy, mobility and resource management can make a vital contribution to achieving sustainable development objectives and reducing urban greenhouse gas emissions

Programmi di R&S europei e network per gli ambiti urbani

di Paola Clerici Maestosi, Roberta Chiarini, Gilda Massa e Francesca Cappellaro, ENEA

DOI 10.12910/EAI2017-018

Il programma Horizon 2020 sta per entrare nel terzo periodo di applicazione: tra le quattro importanti condizioni strutturali e politiche che devono essere soddisfatte affinché l’Europa possa realmente trarre i massimi benefici delle scelte strategiche del programma, c’è la necessità di costruire un forte sistema europeo per scienza, tecnologia e innovazione

Structural analysis of historic constructions: Some notable examples

by Farhad Ansari, University of Illinois at Chicago, Giovanni Bongiovanni, Giacomo Buffarini, Paolo Clemente, Guido Martini, Fernando Saitta and Sandro Serafini, ENEA

DOI 10.12910/EAI2016-066

The preservation of historic constructions passes through the analysis of the actions that can affect the structure and a suitable structural modeling. This is based on the knowledge of the geometrical and mechanical characteristics, also with reference to foundations and soil. Past experiences are good lessons for future studies

E-RIHS: l’infrastruttura di ricerca europea per la scienza del patrimonio culturale e naturale

di Luca Pezzati, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR) e Vania Virgili, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN)

DOI 10.12910/EAI2016-065

Il patrimonio culturale e naturale è componente chiave dell’identità europea. Lo studio e la conservazione di tale patrimonio rappresentano una sfida per la scienza e la società. L’infrastruttura di ricerca europea per la scienza del patrimonio fornirà alla comunità multidisciplinare di studiosi del settore (archeologi, storici dell’arte, restauratori, scienziati della conservazione ecc.) strumenti e servizi all’avanguardia per promuovere la conoscenza del patrimonio e migliorare le strategie per la sua conservazione

How to evaluate and mitigate vulnerability of historical buildings. A Spanish project experience

by Rocío Ortiz Calderón and Pilar Ortiz Calderón, University Pablo de Olavide, Dpt. Physical, Chemical and Natural Systems (Seville, Spain)

DOI 10.12910/EAI2016-064

RIVUPH and ART-RISK projects implemented new approaches based on multidisciplinary analysis of environmental hazards and vulnerability in order to develop global conservation strategies. Such strategies can both minimize the deterioration of monuments and reduce the cost of isolated interventions, contributing to the preservation of cultural heritage

How to support the conservation of garden sculptures: A case study in Romania

by Roxana Radvan, Laurentiu Angheluta, Alexandru Chelmus, Lucian Ratoiu, Luminita Ghervase and Ioana Maria Cortea, National Institute of Research and Development for Optoelectronics

DOI 10.12910/EAI2016-063

The Centre of Restoration through Optoelectronic Techniques CERTO, from the National Institute of Research and Development for Optoelectronics (Magurele, Romania), puts into practice valuable scientific results of physico-chemical investigations, documentation-digitization, applied archaeometry, and imagistic laboratorie

Climate change and crop-pest dynamics in the Mediterranean Basin

by Luigi Ponti, ENEA, and Center for the Analysis of Sustainable Agricultural Systems; Andrew Paul Gutierrez, Center for the Analysis of Sustainable Agricultural Systems, Kensington, California, and College of Natural Resources, University of California, Berkeley; and Massimo Iannetta, ENEA

DOI 10.12910/EAI2016-046

Climate change will make assessing and managing crop-pest systems in the Mediterranean Basin more difficult than elsewhere on the globe. The Basin is in many ways a hot spot of global change – as higher as the average projected climate change threatens an extremely rich and intertwined biological and cultural diversity– and increases its vulnerability to biological invasions. As a consequence, pest problems in this hot spot will require a holistic approach to deconstruct the elusive complex interactions that are the underpinning a sound decision making at the field level

Role of pollinators for agricultural productivity

by Nadine Azzu Expert, Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (FAO/GEF/UNEP Global Pollination Project Coordinator 2012-2015)

DOI 10.12910/EAI2016-045

Pollination is an essential regulatory ecosystem service for crop production, directly linking wild ecosystems with agricultural production systems. Animal pollination accounts for roughly one third of the world’s crop production, yet a decline in pollinator populations is a concern, prompting a response at the international policy level. Through the GEF/UNEP/FAO Global-sized Pollination Project, a protocol was developed for assessing and detecting if a crop production system is suffering a pollination deficit. Over a period of five years, the protocol was applied in 344 fields from 33 pollinator-dependent crop systems in small and large farms, for a study to quantify to what degree enhancing pollinator density and richness can improve yields. The study demonstrated that ecological intensification through enhancement of pollinators could contribute to synchronous biodiversity and yield outcomes

ELIH-Med: un progetto mediterraneo di riqualificazione per l’edilizia popolare

di A. Mazzolari, A. Amato, C. Coccia e A. Moreno, ENEA

DOI 10.12910/EAI2016-033

Il problema dell’“energy poverty” sta assumendo dimensioni sempre più preoccupanti nei paesi dell’Europa mediterranea, dove alla crisi economica e occupazionale, nel settore dell’edilizia popolare si aggiungono barriere di tipo legislativo e burocratico, scarsa coordinazione tra enti pubblici e alti rischi di investimento per i privati

Nearly Zero Energy Buildings (NZEB). Status of implementation and selected examples in Europe

by Hans Erhorn and Heike Erhorn-Kluttig, Fraunhofer Institute for Building Physics, Germany

DOI 10.12910/EAI2016-032

With the adoption of the recast Energy Performance of Building Directive (EPBD) in 2010 (Directive 2010/31/EU), the building industry and the European Member States (MS) faced new tough challenges. One of the most prominent among them is the progress towards new and retrofitted
Nearly Zero-Energy Buildings (NZEB) by 2021 (2019 in the case of public buildings)

Local climate change: Assessing the impact and mitigating the heat

by M. Santamouris, Group Building Environmental Studies, Physics Department, University of Athens

DOI 10.12910/EAI2016-034

The main characteristics of the local climatic change and, in particular, of the urban heat island phenomenon. The implications of the urban heat island on energy consumption in buildings, and on the indoor and outdoor environmental quality and health. The actual research and the existing application aiming to develop and apply mitigation technologies to counterbalance the urban temperature increase and its impact on man

An approach to sustainable-development-based energy and climate policies in India

by Radhika Khosla,a Srihari Dukkipati,b Navroz K Dubash,a Ashok Sreenivas,b Brett Cohenc a Centre for Policy Research, New Delhi, b Prayas (Energy Group), Pune, c Energy Research Centre, University of Cape Town

DOI 10.12910/EAI2016-017

Planning for India’s energy future requires addressing multiple and simultaneous economic, social and environmental challenges. While there has been conceptual progress towards harnessing their synergies, there are limited methodologies available for operationalising a multiple objective framework for development and climate policy. We propose a ‘multi-criteria decision analysis’ (MCDA) approach to this problem, using illustrative examples from the building and cooking sectors

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L'editoriale

di Federico Testa
Federico Testa

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Cooperazione internazionale
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Decarbonizzazione
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Economie
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Nucleare dal passato alle opportunità
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La sanità tra Scienza e Tecnologia
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Astana Italy
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Smart city
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